Uses for soda ash

uses for soda ash It can effectively clean the air. By softening the water, Soda Ash helps maximize the performance of the bentonite or polymer and speed up hydration reducing mixing times. Soda ash (sodium carbonate) is a powder that is mixed with water and injected into the water pipe before the pressure tank to raise the pH of water. Shortwall mining is used exclusively by TG Soda Ash, Inc. As with any chemical,soda ash requires care in handling. Clean concrete. Clean dish cloths and dirty tea towels in a strong solution of soda ash and hot water to remove dirt and grease. Soda ash is produced mainly by two routes. Soda Ash has many other applications; is used to control pH in water treatment, neutralising acidity and eliminating issues with corrosion; it is an important component in the manufacture of paper pulp and in the recycling of paper; and dense food grade Soda Ash is used to produce products like baking soda, a key … Soda Ash lowers the temperature at which sand melts when making glass. FMC Corporation has been discharging tailings and spent solutions from Oct 15, 2015 · If a service company has 100 service accounts (10,000 gallons each) and had to make this adjustment on 25 of the pools they maintain each week, using soda ash instead of baking soda would result in savings of $129. 0 simulation have been presented on usability of natural soda ash production process waste in order to remove SO2 from flue gas. By dissolving 2 to 3 lbs of soda per gallon of water and injecting this solution at a rate of 100 ppm to 200 ppm, the pH will rise to the 7. Soda Ash is such a basic manufacturing agent, that various government and commercial chemical agencies produce the statistics of the production to measure the economic health. Once cooled, transfer the soda ash into a storage container, like this disposable Ziploc one. The principal current uses include: Glass making: More than half the worldwide production of soda ash is used to make glass. Produced from four raw materials, soda ash and its derivatives have a wide variety of industrial applications, including glass, textiles and detergents. Soda Ash has many other applications; is used to control pH in water treatment, neutralising acidity and eliminating issues with corrosion; it is an important component in the manufacture of paper pulp and in the recycling of paper; and dense food grade Soda Ash is used to produce products like baking soda, a key … soda ash. Sodium metasilicate is mixed with water to form a cleaning Method Two uses soda ash only and is a simple easy to remember formula. Soda Ash has many other applications; is used to control pH in water treatment, neutralising acidity and eliminating issues with corrosion; it is an important component in the manufacture of paper pulp and in the recycling of paper; and dense food grade Soda Ash is used to produce products like baking soda, a key … Soda Ash. Mixing Instructions - BRS Soda Ash Liquid Alkalinity. We offer two variants of soda ash-dense soda ash and light soda ash. If you make a lot of soap, we recommend investing in a handheld steamer. It’smostly used as an ingredient in the manufacture of dyes and coloring agents, synthetic detergents and fertilizers. A 10% soda ash solution is 100,000 parts per million soda ash. Soda ash is an essential ingredient in the manufacturing industry, from industrial chemicals to home products such as . Â Feb 24, 2021 · Both baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and soda ash (sodium carbonate) are highly alkaline substances, which makes them ideal for balancing acidic pool water. Since the lat e 1980's, most Wyoming soda ash companies have installed continuous hauling systems to replace shuttle cars. • Number of manufacturing lines used to produce soda ash. It is an important component in the process of dyeing fabrics. Washing soda, which Jun 12, 2014 · Soda ash is a good source of sodium ions, which is required in the production of sodium silicates, sodium phosphates, sodium bicarbonates (baking soda) which is also an essential component in the manufacture of fizzy drinks, soaps, detergents, coatings, food preservatives, personal care products and for dialysis. The second method is by the treatment of naturally mined trona ores. Tie Dye 101. Soda ash is also used as a raw material in the production of different detergents ingredients such as sodium percarbonate, sodium silicate which is a corrosion inhibitor extending the lifetime of washing machines. Use a toilet brush for optimum effect. The main use for soda ash is the production of glass. Sodium Carbonate or Natural Soda Ash (based on Trona) are present in a wide range of applications. Soda ash is hygroscopic in nature and forms a strong alkaline water solution. Soda ash is available in three different grades namely dense soda ash, light soda ash, and washing soda. Soda ash is also used as a preservative for meat and fish where it is sprinkled on the meat and then it helps in removing water thus drying the meat and preventing it from getting spoilt. 1 Soda ash (Sodium Carbonate) shall be delivered in a bulk bag or bag form. One pound of soda ash is required to activate and "set" Procion dye for approximately 15 T-shirts. It is also an important ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical Washing soda or soda ash is the common name for sodium carbonate, this naturally occurring mineral carries the formula Na2CO3. Soda ash is made in two main grades – light and dense. • If producing soda ash using the liquid alkaline feedstock process and using the site-specific emission factor method, report the relevant information listed under 40 CFR 98. Use as plant food 1/4 cup baking soda, and 1 gallon (3. It is an odorless powder which is not toxic, flammable, and explosive. Food can cope with small pollution, in addition, it costs much more, and calcined can fight pollution of various degrees, and its price is much less. It widely used in Soap, detergent, glass, paper and rayon industries. Soda Ash has many other applications; is used to control pH in water treatment, neutralising acidity and eliminating issues with corrosion; it is an important component in the manufacture of paper pulp and in the recycling of paper; and dense food grade Soda Ash is used to produce products like baking soda, a key … Among the uses of sodium carbonate (soda ash), we can mention the following. Even with preventative measures, soda ash can still form. 4 Ways To Tie Dye A Shirt With Soda Ash How to clean soda ash. Soda ash decomposes on Jul 30, 2018 · 14 Household Uses For Soda Ash. The use of this material in glass can reduce the glass formation temperature. It is used in toothpaste as foaming agent and abrasive and to increase mouth pH. Each pound of fiber needs about 4 ounces of soda ash (25% of the dry weight of the fiber). See recipe here. Soda ash, also known as sodium carbonate, has the following uses: Industrial Applications –Being a highly soluble substance, soda ash is used for numerous chemical reactions. Glass that uses soda ash are flat glass (windows, automotive, mirrors) and container glass (food and beverage bottles, tumblers and serving dishes). 406kg] of soda ash mixed with one gallon [3. Ciner Wyoming is one of the largest and lowest cost producers of natural soda ash in the world, serving a global market from its facility in the Green River Basin of Wyoming. It’salso an important chemical agent used Soda Ash uses. Remove the cap and fill the container the rest of the way Leblanc process. Jul 02, 2015 · Soda Ash: Grades And Uses. These dyes will not work without the use of Dye Fixer. and save energy. They are already well-known for their effectiveness in flux for glass and flux for Sep 16, 2021 · Soda ash for tie-dye is a chemical that can be used to create tie-dye effects with cellulose fiber, such as cotton. Soda Ash is the 10th most consumed inorganic compound in the world, which has been used for over 5,000 years. baking soda. Available in various packing from 10, 20, 25, 50 kgs. Soda Ash is an essential, natural raw material used in the manufacturing of glass, chemicals, detergents and soaps. While some reaction will occur, the resulting colors will be far weaker than if soda ash is used. The difference is, while soda ash has a higher pH level, it also has less of an impact on total alkalinity. 2 For storage purposes, Soda ash (Sodium Carbonate) shall be store i n cool-dry and well ventilated area and separated from acids. There are four distinct methods used to mine the Wyoming Trona ore: (1) solution mining, (2) room-and-pillar mining, (3) longwall mining, and (4) shortwall mining. Soda Ash has many other applications; is used to control pH in water treatment, neutralising acidity and eliminating issues with corrosion; it is an important component in the manufacture of paper pulp and in the recycling of paper; and dense food grade Soda Ash is used to produce products like baking soda, a key … Uses of soda ash Soda ash is used in many industrial processes, and its production is sometimes used as an indicator of economic health. We left Auckland on You can also periodically scrub out your toilets with a washing soda and vinegar solution. Doing Dishes? Don’t forget the baking soda. Most used in industry, a small portion of the civilian. The main uses for soda ash are in the production of glass, chemicals, soap and detergent. You can clean it off with the following methods. They are used as builders in the formulation of soaps, detergents and other cleaning compounds to maximize the detergency of cleaning media. The increasing adoption of glass packaging solutions in the food and beverage, pharmaceutical and personal care industries is strengthening the market growth in this segment. It is common to inject between 50 and 500 ppm soda ash to increase the pH of well water. Jul 07, 2021 · To use soda ash to brighten your next tie-dye project, Burch says to dissolve a cup of soda ash in a gallon of water, and soak your cotton items in it for 15 minutes to make sure the soda ash has penetrated the fiber. Monohydrate soda ash has 14. It is a safe, simple compound and a key component in a variety of industrial processes from the manufacture of glass to dry powder detergents and lithium-ion batteries. Soda ash is strong enough to dissolve out the non-cellulose parts of the fiber, yet it will not weaken the finished paper. The export of soda ash has helped the country to earn foreign exchange through the export and in turn, the country’s economy is improved. Soda ash also is used to clean the air and soften water. Add a pop (pun intended) of color and kitsch to casual parties. 1. Smarty Gift Idea Tie Dye Kit Charlotte Pants. Secure the cap on the container and shake it for about 10 seconds to help start the dissolving process. Soda Ash has many other applications; is used to control pH in water treatment, neutralising acidity and eliminating issues with corrosion; it is an important component in the manufacture of paper pulp and in the recycling of paper; and dense food grade Soda Ash is used to produce products like baking soda, a key … Page 4 of 10 CINER SDS | SODA ASH/ SODIUM CARBONATE 5 FIRE‐FIGHTING MEASURES 5. It forms an important industrial chemical, and is widely used in the manufacture of different Light soda ash, which is widely used as a pH regulator/ buffering agent in multiple industrial processes. Washing soda or soda ash is the common name for sodium carbonate, this naturally occurring mineral carries the formula Na2CO3. Hawkins carries high purity, Soda Ash. Sep 15, 2021 · Soda ash, also known as sodium carbonate, is an;alkaline compound with a high pH widely used in the manufacturing industry and for domestic use. Soda Ash is used in the mining and smelting of various metals, especially alumina products. Soda ash also aids in agglomeration by carrying the surfactant and providing the optimum pH of the detergent. Soda ash is also known as sodium carbonate, washing soda, or sal soda. Add half a bag of Tulip Soda Ash into the bowl, then mix! Submerge your sweatshirt into the soda ash solution, making sure that it is completely covered. From flat glass for windows and automobile windshields to container glass for food, soda and beer, soda ash is a chief input for all of those products. What is Soda Ash and what is it used for? Soda Ash or Sodium Carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) as it is chemically known, is a white powder or granular substance refined from the mineral trona. Soda ash is also used in detergents, directly as a water softener in dry mix, and as a raw material for other detergent chemcials. Soda Ash. A common source of sodium carbonate is the ashes of plants sometimes called soda ash. The thousand uses of soda ash (1900). 1 EXTINGUISHING MEDIA Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. 296(b)(10). Rinse off Ciner Resources LP is a subsidiary of Atlanta-based Ciner Resources Corporation, which operates the trona ore mining and soda ash production business of Ciner Wyoming LLC. Aug 23, 2019 · Soda ash/sodium hydroxide injection . Additionally, soda ash is also being used in the production of a number of other cleaning products. ;Common uses of soda ash include glass production, a soaping agent in laundry detergents, and as a food additive. Our customers depend on Hawkins for high quality Soda ash is widely used in the manufacturing of glass as it helps in regulating the temperature of the furnace to attain stability. Soda ash is an important part of a Nov 13, 1999 · Soda Ash Dye Fixer. Soda ash helps to set the dye on your fabric and creates bright, vibrant colors without changing the color of the fabric itself. In direct application dyeing, the fabric is first soaked Washing soda or soda ash is the common name for sodium carbonate, this naturally occurring mineral carries the formula Na2CO3. Details. Chemical producers use soda ash as an intermediate to manufacture products that sweeten soft drinks (corn sweeteners), relieve physical discomfort Hello from Milan, top 5 recipes, 7 uses for soda ash. Well known use of soda ash is in laundering as a water softner, it is a vital raw material in the manufacture of glass only natural soda ash producer that uses longwall mining to augment its mining technology. 4. Anyone responsible for the procurement,use or disposal of this product should familiarize himself and those handling it with the appropriate safety and handling precautions. I'm in Milan! It's been a great trip so far even though we are really on a few days into it. The amount you inject depends on how much you need to raise the pH. Soda Ash has many other applications; is used to control pH in water treatment, neutralising acidity and eliminating issues with corrosion; it is an important component in the manufacture of paper pulp and in the recycling of paper; and dense food grade Soda Ash is used to produce products like baking soda, a key … Soda ash has replaced conventionally used phosphates that are used in the detergent industry. 50 per week. Last on the list but not the least, washing soda or soda ash is an excellent concrete cleaner. All you need is warm water, washing soda, a good brush, and formidable patience. In the soda ash industry, mainly light industry, building materials, chemical industry, accounting for about 2/3: followed by metallurgy, textile, oil, defense, pharmaceutical and other industries. 75lt] of water makes a solution of 10% Soda Ash. It gets rid of the soda ash quickly. Soda ash (sodium carbonate) and sodium hydroxide raise the pH of water to near neutral when injected into a water system. What is soda ash and what is it used for? Soda ash, the trade name for sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3), is a white, anhydrous, powdered or granular material. Perfect for making our natural laundry powder. Folks, that's $6,734. sizes at discount prices. It is a Uses Of Sodium Carbonate Or Soda Ash. Soda ash may cause eye injury and skin irritation. Jun 12, 2014 · Soda ash is an important ingredient in the manufacture of soaps because it acts as a builder when the soaps, cleaning compounds and detergents are formulated. It is an alkali solution that has a high pH in concentrated solutions. Stop mildew and blackspot in its tracks by spraying roses with a solution made from 1/4 cup soda ash, 1 cup of milk and 3 litres of water. Soda Ash has many other applications; is used to control pH in water treatment, neutralising acidity and eliminating issues with corrosion; it is an important component in the manufacture of paper pulp and in the recycling of paper; and dense food grade Soda Ash is used to produce products like baking soda, a key … Dye Fixer/Soda Ash (Before) Dye Fixer is a chemical called Sodium Carbonate or Soda Ash. It is also used in other industrial processes including mining and water treatment. Sep 25, 2018 · It can help in removing stains, alcohol, and grease on clothes – also in coffee pots and espresso makers. Soda ash is the chemical name for sodium carbonate. 0. From detergents and chemicals, to consumer products and water softeners, this material can be found in many of the products we interact with throughout our daily lives. Soda cans can become cute pop-art coasters when they're cut into squares and framed. Sep 18, 2013 · Used in aluminum smelting process, for example, the preparation of cryolite and the processing of bauxite, soda ash and caustic soda are used. How soda ash/sodium hydroxide injection works . It is also possible to replace a portion of the caustic soda with sodium carbonate in many pulp bleaching applications such as caustic extraction or hydrogen 4. 7 liters) water. Hold the steamer about 1-5 inches above each bar of soap for 20-30 seconds. , and the flue gas compositions were acquired from an existing thermal power plant. "Squeeze out the extra water, then apply the fiber-reactive dye to the damp fabric," she advises. Jul 07, 2009 · Soda Ash (Pure Dense Sodium Carbonate) is required to 'fix' or 'make permanent' Dharma Fiber Reactive Dyes on cotton and other cellulose fibers. The Leblanc process was the industrial process for the production of soda ash ( sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc. The commonly known name of Sodium Carbonate is Soda Ash, it's formula is Na2Co3 and exists as a white , odorless powder. Uses. Unlike neutralizing filters, they do not cause hardness problems in treated water. Soda Ash is also known as sodium carbonate washing soda, and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate), Na 2 CO 3. It is used in brick industries as wetting agent. And such as tungsten smelting, is also the first to concentrate and soda roasting into soluble sodium tungstate, then through acid out, dehydration, reduction process and made of tungsten powder. We also carry Soda Ash in bulk and in multiple packaging options as well as in multiple grades. It is generally prepared by ammonia soda or Solvey process. This product is a must-have in every home as it’s a great all-purpose cleaner and deodorizer. Fill a 1-gallon container 4/5 full of RO/DI or distilled water and then add the entire contents of 1 pouch into the container. of soda ash mixed with one gallon of water makes a solution of 10% Soda Ash. A lot of people misunderstand that soda ash and baking soda are the same things. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) also known as washing soda or soda ash is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. Soda ash: the recommended amount of soda ash is 1-2% of the WOF, or approximately 1/4 – 1/2 teaspoon for 100 grams or 4 ounces of fiber. Nov 03, 2020 · How to Use Soda Ash: Wear protective gloves while working with soda ash. Stir it very well for 30 seconds, then give it a few minutes to mix. May 03, 2021 · Is soda ash the same as baking soda tie dye? Baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate, cannot be used as a substitute for soda ash for tie-dyeing at room temperature. The offered range is available at competitive prices and is also appreciated by our customers. Soda Ash is a white, granular powder used to soften and condition make-up water and raise pH. It is also used in industrial chemicals and detergents. It is used to remove fat from drains, greasy burners, and pans. Results of ChemCad©6. Soda ash is used in a very wide range of industries (glass is the single biggest user) so its chemical, physical and bulk properties are well understood and documented (General Chemical Industrial Products publishes an excellent booklet describing soda ash). 2. Caisson/Foundation Civil Engineering Drilling HDD Slurry Cut-Off Walls Water/Minerals. Dense soda ash is an anhydrous substance mostly used in the manufacturing of Sep 05, 2021 · Soda Ash In Fabric Dyeing Colorways By Vicki Welsh. DIY soda can coasters: These are really cool. Our Sodium Carbonate or soda ash is used in food industry as acidity regulator, raising agent and stabilizer. The raw material for Wyoming soda ash is mined Trona ore, while California soda ash is derived from sodium carbonate-rich brine extracted from Searles Lake. An alkaline substance, sodium carbonate - Na2 CO3 used in the cooking of bark fibers or any native plant fiber. Mar 09, 2006 · The results will amaze you, but remember — wood ash was a key ingredient in old-fashioned lye soap. What is Soda Ash. . [or 0. 5. Belonging to the family of carbonates it is hygroscopic in nature and has an alkaline taste. The average volume consumption of Soda Ash is as follows: Glass – 50%. Soda ash works much better…. 23. Measure 8 cups of warm water into a large bowl. May 16, 2011 · Soda ash, or sodium carbonate (NaCO3), can be derived from natural deposits (two main sources: the hard rock mineral trona and lake brines), or more commonly, synthetic processes, such as the Solvay process which uses salt, lime, coal and ammonia. Both soda ash and baking soda are alkali, only one weak, the other strong. • Glass manufacturing: Sodium carbonate is used in the glass industry. I'm not saying that you should, but you could. Available in 1, 5, 10, and 25 lb. Its scientific name is salsola soda; however, it goes by the common names of Sodawort or Glasswort, the latter pointing to the use in making glass. Tulip Soda Ash Tie Dye Enhancer Brightens The Look Of. Feb 21, 2014 · Soda Ash Applications Cont … Soda ash is used as the sodium source for sodium sulfite/bi-sulfite pulping liquors used in the sulfite, CMP, and CTMP processes, and in NSSC pulping. Soda ash also known as sodium carbonate is an alkali chemical refined from trona ore. As a trusted manufacturer and distributor to a large array of industries, Hawkins supplies Soda Ash to various companies for a variety of applications and uses. It is an essential raw material used in the manufacturing of glass, detergents chemicals and other industrial products. May be harmful if swallowed. It involved two stages: Production of sodium sulfate from sodium chloride, followed by reaction of the sodium sulfate with coal and calcium carbonate to Nov 15, 2021 · What is Soda Ash, and Why We Use Soda Ash for Tie Dye Soda ash, washing soda, also chemically known as Sodium Carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) is a mild alkali. Jul 08, 2021 · Baking soda is made from soda ash, which is sodium carbonate. Moreover, light soda ash is widely employed for manufacturing soaps and detergents. • Production of chemicals: Sodium carbonate in the production of various chemicals. Soda ash is a mild alkali that promotes the chemical reaction between Procion MX fiber reactive dye and cellulose fiber. Soda ash is a white, anhydrous, powdered or granular material containing more than 99% sodium carbonate. 3. Soda Ash has many other applications; is used to control pH in water treatment, neutralising acidity and eliminating issues with corrosion; it is an important component in the manufacture of paper pulp and in the recycling of paper; and dense food grade Soda Ash is used to produce products like baking soda, a key … Soda ash, or sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3), is a versatile alkali material, critical in the production of a litany of products and materials. Nov 15, 2021 · What is Soda Ash, and Why We Use Soda Ash for Tie Dye Soda ash, washing soda, also chemically known as Sodium Carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) is a mild alkali. It is an essential raw material used in the manufacture of glass, detergents and soaps, chemicals and other industrial products. Add 2 heaping tablespoons of baking soda to your dishwater. Apr 18, 2018 · Our product is largely used in manufacturing soaps, detergents, and other cleaning compounds. It can also be used for dying clothes. SODA ASH. As environmental concerns grow, demand increases for soda ash used in the removal of sulfur dioxide and hydrochloric acid from stack gases. If your fabric is unbleached or feels particularly dirty or greasy, use 2% WOF. 5% crystal water. Chemical – 26%. Commonly named “Soda”, the Soda Ash is known as Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3. The number one use for soda ash is for making glass; soda ash lowers the melting point of silica. It is the most essential chemical in our dyeing process, because it causes the chemical reaction that makes these dyes become part of the fabric. Borax on the other hand has a slightly different chemical composition of sodium tetraborate or Na2B4O7. Medium or lighter soda ash is commonly used in detergents. It is a vital raw material in many industrial applications, such as detergents, chemicals, and glass manufacturing. 0—8. Is It Alright To Pre Treat Cotton With Soda Ash Dye A Tulip Kit And Use Retayne After. 3 Avoid contact with strong mineral acids. The longest established method is the synthetic chemical process known as the Solvay ammonia-soda process. Glass manufacturing is the most common use for soda ash. The high alkalinity of soda ash allows it to act as a solvent in removing a wide range of stains. 00 per year! Obviously pools larger than 10,000 gallons would recognize a proportionately greater Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash) is used as a building block for powdered detergents and washing soda. Soda Ash is a key component in the production of powdered detergents and soaps due to its high alkalinity and surfactant qualities, which allows it to improve the solvency, and the effectiveness, of the detergent in removing stains whilst using less water. This treatment method is used if water is acidic (low pH). 926 lbs. Properties and concentrations of the solutions used in this study belong to the waste stream of Eti Soda Inc. Besides other chemicals, soda ash is used in making soaps and detergents, water Nov 15, 2021 · What is Soda Ash, and Why We Use Soda Ash for Tie Dye Soda ash, washing soda, also chemically known as Sodium Carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) is a mild alkali. Tulip Soda Ash Tie Dye Kit Hobby Lobby 1104959. 0 range, assuming a typical well water flow rate of Soda Ash has many other applications; is used to control pH in water treatment, neutralising acidity and eliminating issues with corrosion; it is an important component in the manufacture of paper pulp and in the recycling of paper; and dense food grade Soda Ash is used to produce products like baking soda, a key … Here are some helpful facts about Soda Ash injection: 1. Dense soda ash, which is an anhydrous substance. Soda can ash tray: OK, it's not too glamorous, but you can make an ash tray out of a soda can. It can increase the alkaline level in swimming pools which can help in maintaining the PH Levels to balance the water. How to use it: If you want to mix up a gallon of alkalinity liquid solution for daily dosing, combine 1 gallon of RODI water with 2 cups of soda ash. Let it sit in the soda ash for 30 minutes to an hour. Its CAS registry number is 497-19-8 and its Harmonized System (HS) code is 283 620. Soda ash is used to produce food grade monosodium glutamate, pasta and so on. Soda ash, also known as sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), is an alkali chemical refined from the mineral trona or naturally occurring sodium carbonate-bearing brines (the soda ash from both is referred to as natural soda ash) or manufactured from one of several chemical processes (the soda ash from this process is referred to as synthetic soda ash). This type of cleaner is slightly corrosive and will burn skin and corrode aluminum products. 0 Mandatory Marking Each bag of Soda ash ( Sodium Carbonate) shall have mark legibly on The particular name Soda Ash originates from the Barilla plant, used to produce sodium carbonate through the aforementioned process. Check out these great baking soda uses: 1. uses for soda ash

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